D’Aiuto, C., Lunghi, C., Guénette, L., Berbiche, D., Pitrou, I., Bertrand, K. et Vasiliadis, H.-M. (2022). Factors associated with potentially inappropriate opioid use in community-living older adults consulting in primary care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 37(8).
Objective. To study the factors associated with opioid use and potentially inappropriate opioid use (PIOU) in primary care older adults with non-cancer pain referring to the conceptual framework developed by the American Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Methods. This is a secondary analysis of health survey and medico-administrative data from Québec, Canada. Individuals aged ≥65 were recruited between 2011 and 2013 in primary care clinics to participate in face-to-face interviews. The sample included 945 older adults without a malignant tumor over the study period or any tumor in the 2 years surrounding opioid use. Opioid use within a 3 year follow-up period was identified from the public drug plan database. Potentially inappropriate opioid use (PIOU) was defined using the American Geriatrics Society Beers 2019 list. Multinomial regression analyses were performed to study the factors (patient, pain, substance use, provider, healthcare system) associated with opioid use and PIOU.
Results. In this sample of older adults, 26.2% used an opioid and 18.4% were categorized as PIOU. Factors associated with PIOU compared to opioid use included female sex, higher psychological distress, number of emergency department visits, and recruitment type of healthcare practice. Factors associated with PIOU compared to no use included female sex, country of origin, presence of a trauma, physical/psychiatric multimorbidity, number of outpatient consultations, pain severity/type, and number of prescribers.
Conclusions. Mental health and health system factors were associated with PIOU. Results highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for pain management, and the urgent need for implementing organizational efforts to optimize opioid use in primary care.